Tag Archives: ACL Injury

ACL Injury Prevention 101

ACL injuries (anterior cruciate ligament) have been an epidemic in sports but even more so in women’s athletics.  Females are 3-4x more likely to tear their ACL than men.  A few of the main reasons are:

– poor mobility/flexibility
– insufficient strength levels
– improper jumping and cutting mechanics

ACL Injuries

Poor Landing Mechanics!

At our ACL Injury Prevention clinic you will learn the fundamentals of strength training, flexibilty, speed and agility, and jump training to become a better athlete while also decreasing the risk of devasting ACL injuries.  See our recent blog posts for more information on ACL injuries and examples of how we teach landing mechanics.

Athletes will work in small groups with our expert staff addressing each of these problem areas. They will also learn drills and exercises that can be done at home or within school training programs to continue to develop athletically.

Come ready to work and learn!

Cost is $10 per athlete

Who:  Middle and High School Female Athletes

Where:  Elite Physical Therapy and Sports Performance – 4177 Village Park Dr. Suite B Traverse City (next to Wuerfel Park)

When – February 11th 10am – noon

What to bring:  athletic attire, water bottle, and your energy!

Space is limited to 24 athletes so sign up today!

Bonus:  we’ll be offering a free movement screening session to attendees who would like to participate.  Screening consists of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y Balance test, plus jump and hop testing.  Exercise programs are then individually developed based on these test results.  Those interested can schedule their free screening by calling us at 231 421-5805.

UPDATE: The clinic was a big success and we definitely plan on doing it again. Here is what some attendees thought about the clinic:

“It was a lot of fun and I learned a lot of new exercises” – A.R.

“I never realized how hard it would be to do some of these exercises. Or that my right leg was a lot stronger than my left leg” – A.H.

“The girls had a good time. It was really eye opening to see some good athletes struggle with controlling their landings. Thanks for doing this” – J.W. Parent.

We can also set up an ACL injury prevention clinic for your team. If you are interested just give me a call at 231 421-5805 or email Joe@elitepttc.com.

ACL Injuries and Prevention – Jump Training Part 3

Here is video #3 in our series on box jumps and how we use them here at Elite Physical Therapy and Sports Performance to decrease the risk of ACL injuries and also to improve jumping performance.

Don’t forget this Wednesday Dec. 28th – the Northern Pride Sports Academy is running a basketball clinic for 6th – 8th grade girls at Kingsley High School from 2pm – 6pm.  We will be taking athletes through our jump training progressions, injury prevention techniques, as well as what the athletes can be doing at home to continue to get better.

Here is the link to sign up:  http://www.northernpridesportsacademy.com/december-28th-clinic.html

Stay tuned as we’re planning on hosting an ACL injury prevention clinic at Elite PT in February.  I’ll have dates and times coming soon.

Joe

joe@elitepttc.com

231 421-5805

ACL Injuries and Prevention – Jump Training Part II

Last week I talked about some of the main causes of ACL injuries and why they occur at a rate of 3-4x more often in female athletes.  You can find that article along with our first jump training video here:

This week I’m posting the second video in a series of three showing how we begin jump training to a box.  This type of training can be used for ACL injury prevention and to enhance sports performance.  It’s also what we do post-surgically to get the athlete used to jumping again and landing safely.

The great thing about box jumps is that the forces on the knee are quite low because you are not coming all the way back down to the floor.  It’s also much easier because of this for the athlete to work on proper landing technique.

Before I get to the video though I thought I’d post a picture of what you don’t want your athletes knees to look like.

ACL Injuries

a.k.a. valgus collapse of the knee

Check out the video below for more:

Looks fairly simple but let me assure you it can be quite challenging for many athletes – boys included.  Learning to jump and land correctly has been proven to help prevent ACL injuries and it must also be a huge focus of any post-surgical ACL rehabilitation program.

If you have any questions feel free to contact me Joe@elitepttc.com or 231 421-5805.  We also do injury prevention and return to sport testing which does include a number of jump/hop tests.  If you’d like to know where you stand in relationship to other athletes in your sport we can definitely set that up for you.

ACL Injuries and Prevention

ACL injuries (anterior cruciate ligament) have been an epidemic in sports but even more so in women’s athletics.  Females are 3-4x more likely to tear their ACL than men.  There are several proposed theories on why this is so but for the purposes of this article and what we address here at Elite Physical Therapy we will discuss the following:

  • Poor movement quality
  • Strength deficits
  • Landing mechanics

I’ll go more in depth in subsequent articles but for now here are the basics:

Poor movement quality

There are just certain joints in our bodies that need to be very mobile in order to get us through our daily activities and especially sporting activities like running, jumping, and cutting.  Don’t get me wrong – all of our joints need to move through their full range of motion for us to be efficient movers.  Some just need to be emphasized a bit more because of their tendency to become stiff while other areas of our body need a bit more stability/motor control.  Check out the picture below to get an idea of how this works – it’s called the Joint – by – Joint theory.

Alternating sequence of mobility - stability through the entire body

Alternating sequence of mobility – stability through the entire body

It’s a very simplified way of looking at things but it does often work out this way.  The knee joint needs to have a great deal of stability in all directions to prevent injury.  If the ankle and hip joints above and below are moving well then the knee joint will more likely stay within it’s accepted range of motion during athletic movements.  If the ankle and/or hip are stiff then the knee may just have to go outside of it’s normal boundries to land from a jump or decelerate while cutting.  This is where things can go south in a hurry!

Strength deficits

There is plenty of research out there in the medical and physical therapy journals showing that strength deficits can lead to knee injuries, and in particular ACL tears. Years ago the main concern was the ration of strength between the quadriceps and hamstrings, which if it was below a certain level it could inhibit an athletes ability to decelerate correctly leading to injury.

Lately the focus has been more on the hips and muscles of the ‘core’ and how weakness or lack of control in those areas can contribute to injury.  I’ll get more into the ‘how’ and ‘why’ in another article but it is a reality that needs to be addressed.

At Elite Physical Therapy, we know that a comprehensive strength program must be implemented to assist in the prevention of ACL injuries.  Quality movement is critical for effective strength training as well.  Being able to combine these qualities is what we do best, and definitely one of my favorite things to talk about so more to come for sure!

Landing mechanics

It is also well documented that female athletes land and cut differently than the male athletes.  Women tend to land stiffer and higher than the men who typically land in deeper hip and knee flexion angles.  Stiffer and higher landings are more dangerous as far as the knee joint is concerned.

Strength and movement quality again play a large role in this.  Some athletes can’t even get into a good position to perform complex athletic movements.  Big problem!

Many don’t have the strength to get into the proper positions.  Another big problem.

As the athletic activities get faster, more complex, impose higher forces, etc it becomes more and more challenging to perform them using good technique.  Fortunately all of these qualities can be addressed through physical therapy and proper training techniques.

Check out the video below showing how we start teaching athletes to jump correctly using box jumps.  The nice thing about landing on a box is that you don’t really have to come all the way back down.  Much less strain on the knees and an easy way to work on jumping and landing technique.

I’ll be posted a new video every few days showing more of the progressions we use.  We will also be hosting some ACL prevention clinics in the near future so if you’d like to learn more and get some hands on assistance than please contact us.

Here is what we have coming up:

December 28th from 2 pm – 6 pm at Kingsley High School with the Northern Pride Sports Academy.  6th – 8th grade girls basketball skills camp.  We will be teaching a session on jumping progressions to improve athletic performance and reduce injury risk.

In February (date to be determined) we will be hosting an ACL Injury Prevention clinic here at Elite Physical Therapy and Sports Performance.  Topics will include mobility training, strength training, and jump training progressions. More on that to come as we continue to line up speakers and instructors.

For more information you can contact us at 231 421-5805.

Joe Heiler PT

Occlusion Cuff

Blood Flow Restriction Training

Blood Flow Restriction training, aka BFR, has actually been around for awhile now but its finally starting to make its way into professional and collegiate sports as well as physical therapy.  Johnny Owens has been the driving force behind BFR in the U.S. after successfully using this technology with veterans recovering from devastating combat injuries.  Since that time he’s been training numerous professional sports teams in the use of blood flow restriction training including the Detroit Lions and Detroit Red Wings.

What the heck is it?

BFR training utilizes a tourniquet-like device which is placed proximally on a limb to limit arterial inflow to the limb while blocking venous outflow.

I should add a word of warning sooner rather than later.  There are commercial devices out there used by trained professionals for this type of training.  Do not make your own tourniquet and try this at home!

Benefits

I’m going to go a bit scientific on you here but just for a moment:

  • Training loads used are only 20-35% of 1 rep max, and often times are just body weight.  The same effects with weight lifting alone must be at least 70 – 85%.  Translation:  same results with less load = happier joints.
  • Higher release of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and other substances known to speed tissue repair and create a positive environment for muscle hypertrophy.
  • Increased recruitment of Type II (fast-twitch) muscle fibers even with sub maximal loads
  • Increased muscle protein synthesis through the inhibition of catabolic substances.
  • Cell swelling : shift in fluid balance into the muscle cell creating a protective response to adapt and grow

Check out the chart below from Dr. Mario Novo at the LiftersClinic.com

LiftersClinic.com

Pretty cool stuff isn’t it?  Even with all the science thrown in.

How do you use it?

We work it into our rehab and training sessions closer to the end of the workout.  The build up of lactic acid will reproduce the ‘muscle burn’ sensation pretty quick causing a good amount of muscle fatigue with only body weight activities.  Body weight squats are usually a great place to start.  They are performed for 30 reps:15 reps:15reps:15 reps with 30 seconds between each set.  These will be the toughest body weight squats you’ve ever done!

The number of exercises performed and time training with blood flow restriction is gradually increased.  So far we’ve seen a rapid increase in tolerance to exercise among our athletes allowing them to do more and more work with BFR.  The results have been excellent too with quicker gains in muscle hypertrophy and strength.  If you notice the last column in the chart above – time to adaptation.  Within 2 weeks we are beginning to see positive changes compared to the traditional higher intensity training.

It might sound like I’m down playing the effects of higher intensity training regimens but I’m not at all.  There are tremendous benefits to lifting heavy and creating a great base level of strength.  BFR just offers a great way to increase training volume and intensity while decreasing load.  Over time the heavy weights will wear down your body – ask any collegiate or NFL football player – but this allows for a certain amount of unloading to happen and still reap all the benefits.

I know you want to try it!

Blood flow restriction training is safe when used with the right person at the right time and monitored appropriately.  It is also a pretty intense workout so definitely not for the faint of heart.

We are currently using BFR with athletes and patients post-knee injury, hamstring injuries, shoulder injuries, ankle sprains, and more.  Athletes that come in strictly to train have been having great success with it as well.  If you’ve struggled to make progress as a patient or hit a plateau in your training this would definitely be worth asking about.  We have a number of unique techniques to promote tissue healing and strength/power gains, and this is just one reason we have been setting ourselves apart from the competition!

Occlusion Cuff Shoulder

If you’re really into the science behind blood flow restriction training and would like to learn more, you can check out the two podcasts with Eoin Cremen (creator of the OcclusionCuff) on SportsRehabExpert.com

Questions?  Joe@eliteptt.com or give me a call at 231 421-5805

Vastus Medialis Obliquus Muscle (VMO) “Isolation” Exercises Fact or Myth?

At Elite Physical Therapy and Sports Performance we take pride in the fact the we are well ahead of the curve with out treatment techniques compared to the rest of the traditional PT world, but we also acknowledge that it is important to use evidence based treatment techniques.

Evidence based practice is the buzz word in PT circles but despite this strengthening/isolating the VMO continues to be utilized as a way to decrease knee pain and improve function.   PT’s and physicians alike continue to prescribe strengthening for the VMO muscle of the quadriceps group even though the research has proven this concept to be faulty and ineffective.

This short article was written by a couple PT friends of mine in New York (one of which is in the PT and Strength and Conditioning Halls of Fame!) showing once and for all that you can not isolate the VMO, nor should you bother trying when it comes to solving knee pain.

Enjoy!

Originally posted on SportsRehabExpert.com

Robert A. Panariello MS, PT, ATC, CSCS
Timothy J. Stump MS, PT, CSCS, USAW

Professional Physical Therapy
Professional Athletic Performance Center
New York, New York

Patellofemoral pathology is a fairly common condition observed in clinical setting. The treatment philosophy of some rehabilitation professionals to resolve this painful condition may include the prescription of exercises in the attempt to isolate the Vastus Medialis Obliquus muscle (VMO). Although this VMO exercise isolation “myth” has been negated at least 20 years ago (1, 2) it continues to presently endure.  During this attempt to isolate VMO activity, some designated exercises executed include but are not limited to the following:

  • Quad sets
  • Terminal open chain knee extension exercises
  • Straight leg raises (SLR) with external rotation of the lower extremity

These exercises may or may not be performed with the adjunct application of electric stimulation.

Although these exercises will enhance the strength of the quadriceps muscles, likely assisting in resolving the patient’s knee pathology, this is not due to isolation of the VMO. The case some clinicians formulate for the performance of SLR with external rotation is based on the false premise that by externally rotating the femur will result in further activation of the VMO.

The knee is a hinge joint and during the execution of a SLR, the force of gravity will act in a perpendicular manner between the knee and ground surface. The quadriceps mechanism will now be required to resist the resultant force attempting to flex the knee as this is the only contractile soft tissue structure that is capable of resisting that force.  The quadriceps mechanism like any other dynamic structure can only resist this external force via the neural activation of the muscle group.  The external rotation of the femur gives rise to the placement of stress on medial collateral ligament (MCL), a static stabilizer of the knee.  This treatment philosophy actually removes stress from the very muscle(s) the clinician is attempting to enhance.  As an example a patient with a diagnosis of polio, a condition affecting the anterior horn of the femoral nerve or a patient with a quadriceps tendon rupture can still perform a SLR when externally rotating their femur based on the static stabilizing properties of the MCL.  Therefore one may inquire why would a clinician who is attempting to activate and enhance the quadriceps muscle group perform the SLR exercise in external rotation.

The anatomy and neuroanatomy of the quadriceps muscle group

The quadriceps muscle group is comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis. The vastus medialis (VM) is located at the medial aspect of this muscle group and has been reported to consist of two separate components, the proximal vastus medialis longus (VML) and the distal vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) (4). The neuroanatomy of the quadriceps muscle complex reveals an innervation from the femoral nerve.  The femoral nerve is comprised of large motor units that innervate all four heads of the quadriceps without individual fine motor unit innervation of the separate muscle heads.  Therefore, since the VMO does not have a distinct and separate nerve innervation, it is not possible to “isolate” this muscle from the other quadriceps muscles via a specific exercise performance. The most beneficial way to enhance the VMO is to incorporate the same exercise philosophy used to improve any other muscle or muscle group, the application of unaccustomed stress. The application of unaccustomed yet safe levels of stress is simply known as the “overload principle”. This may be accomplished in two ways; expose the patient to higher levels of unaccustomed resistance or overload them by increasing the velocity of the movement. Both methods will result in a positive adaption of the entire quadriceps muscle group.

Since stress transpires throughout the kinetic chain of the lower extremity during the performance of ADL’s as well as athletic endeavors, the activities prescribed for patellofemoral pathology should also include exercises for both the hip and ankle. “Critical thinking” is a requirement for the approach to the patient’s optimal exercise selection and treatment design. The health care professional’s obligation to provide optimal treatment does not include the application of myths during the patient’s plan of care.

References

1. Cerny K “Vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios for selected exercises in persons with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome”, Phys Ther (8):672-83, 1995
2. Malone T, Davies G, Walsh WM, “Muscular control of the patella” Clin Sports Med 21(3); 349-362, 2002.
3. Hubbard JK, Sampson HW, Elledge JR, “The Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscle and Its Relationship to Patellofemoral Joint Deterioration in Human Cadavers”, J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 28(6):384-391, 1998.
4. Weinstabl R, Scharf W, and Firbas W, “The extensor apparatus of the knee joint and its peripheral vasti: anatomic investigation and clinical relevance”, Surg and Radiological Anat  11(2): 17-22, 1989

Robert A. Panariello MS, PT, ATC, CSCS
Rob Panariello PicRob is a Founding Partner and Chief Clinical Officer with Professional Physical Therapy presently with 44 facilities in the New York and New Jersey Metro areas and the Professional Athletic Performance Center located in Garden City, New York. He has Bachelor Degrees in Physical Therapy and Physical Education/Athletic Training from Ithaca College in Ithaca, NY. He also holds his Master’s Degree in Exercise Physiology from Queens College in Queens, NY.

Rob has more than 30 years of experience in the related fields of Sports Physical Therapy, Athletic Training, and the Performance Training of Athletes. His experience includes the study of the Science of Strength and Conditioning of weightlifters and various sport athletes in Bulgaria, the former Soviet Union, and former East Germany. He previously held the positions as the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at St. John’s University of New York (1986-1995), the World League of American Football NY/NJ Knights (1991), and the WUSA NY POWER Women’s Professional Soccer League (2001-2002). He continues to rehabilitate, athletic performance train, as well as serve as a consultant to many NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL, Collegiate and University teams, coaches, and players.

Rob has more than 60 peer reviewed Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Research, Sports Physical Therapy Research, and Strength and Conditioning Journal Articles and Book Chapter publications. He has also presented his research at the International World Confederation of Physical Therapy in Washington, D.C. He is nationally renowned and lectures throughout the country with regard to the related fields of Sports Physical Therapy and the Performance Training of Athletes.

Rob received the 2015 APTA Sports Physical Therapy Section Lynn Wallace Award for Excellence in Clinical Education, the prestigious National Strength and Conditioning Association’s Presidents Award in 1998 and was elected to the USA Strength and Conditioning Coaches Hall of Fame in 2003.

Tim StumpTimothy J. Stump is a partner with Professional Physical Therapy, and is also a founding partner with the Professional Athletic Performance Center. He  has more than 20 years of experience in the related fields of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, Strength & Conditioning, and Performance Training of Athletes of all levels of competition. Tim’s experience includes the successful participation as a nationally ranked competitive strength athlete in the sports of Powerlifting and Weightlifting from 1990-2010. He continues to actively participate in these sports as a coach and mentor to many athletes.

Tim has published several peer-reviewed original research articles and has presented his research at the APTA National Conference and at CSM. Tim was also awarded the Jacob & Valeria Langeloth Foundation research grant for studies on ACL functional outcomes while employed at the Hospital for Special Surgery. Tim was the 2012 recipient of Columbia University’s Award for “Leadership in Clinical Education” and co-chairs Professional’s Clinical Affiliation Program with over 64 school contracts providing PT, PTA, ATC and Exercise Physiology students with quality clinical affiliation experiences.

Go to the Ground to Improve Your Strength and Mobility

Nick Lucius SPT, CSCS

If you were to ask anyone what constitutes someone as “strong,” most would think of the man squatting 800 pounds or the 225 bench press test. While these are great measures of raw strength, they do not paint the full picture of that individual’s ability to move in a dynamic and fluid fashion. Far too often we get stuck on the “big lifts,” including the bench press, squat, deadlift, and countless shoulder/arm workouts. While the classic strength training movements are effective and involve a great degree of motor recruitment, it does not provide a dynamic environment to make mistakes and learn better movement. If you have eight hundred pounds on your back, the room for error is small. If you are un-weighted and performing dynamic movements, a mistake is relatively pain-free and it provides you with ample information to correct the movement.   You have to move wrong in order to find out what is right.

A book I would recommend to anyone looking to improve their quality of training or to challenge their ability to move better is Original Strength by Tim Anderson. In this book he completely re-vamps the standard belief of strength, trading the bench press for rolling patterns and a heavy squat for a crawling progression. This is not to say however that you should not participate in more traditional strengthening movements. If anything these crawling movements will amplify your training, if done responsibly.

Below is a short video describing some basic progressions of the crawling pattern. In the clinic I love to incorporate these movements for patients of all physical impairments. It’s an incredibly challenging movement that can go great as a recovery day during your training week or in combination between your sets of standard lifts. In the video I begin by demonstrating the prone crawl, which will resemble the “army crawl” that some may have done in gym class. Remember how easy it was back then?

The second progression is the forearm bear crawl. Cues I keep in mind while coaching this movement is to keep your forearms at a 45 degree angle to mimic a child crawling and to maintain a slight posterior pelvic tilt throughout the exercise. A posterior pelvic tilt is best described as “tucking your butt”.   This provides a stable thoracic spine and pelvis, improving our quality to complete the movement without too much side-to-side sway.

The final progression is a full crawl. In this movement the goal is to stay as low to the ground as possible while bringing each leg forward. This crawling progression definitely tests your hip mobility and trunk motor control. Once you feel comfortable with a crawling movement forward, begin to incorporate backwards and side crawls. Maintain the same positioning and reverse your movements. This is testing not only mentally, but I can promise you it will challenge you physically.

As with any movement, if you feel any pain or instability it is recommended to consult a Physical Therapist for conservative musculoskeletal care. In the state of Michigan we now have direct access, meaning that you are able to directly seek a Physical Therapist for any musculoskeletal pain/deficit. Check with your insurance provider if your plan covers the direct access Physical Therapy Evaluation and subsequent treatment.

Thank you for reading and Nick Lucius Picgood luck!

BIO

Nick Lucius SPT is completing his final year in the physical therapy program at UM-Flint.  Nick is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) through the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), and also works as a strength coach at Barwis Method in Plymouth, MI.  After graduation Nick plans on returning to Barwis Method to work with patients affected by orthopedic and neurological conditions.

Nick played Linebacker at Grand Valley State University in his undergraduate days, and now enjoys anything active from running to weight training, and is always going through a good book.

 

Competing at a High Level after an ACL Injury

Big thanks to Dave Chalmers who wrote this guest blog post.  Dave is an athletic trainer who currently writes on behalf of DME Direct

 

It’s every athlete’s worst nightmare. Tearing your anterior cruciate ligament and sustaining a devastating ACL injury. The reason these injuries are so terrifying to athletes is that the road to recovery is long and arduous, and even then there is no guarantee you will ever be the same player and you always run the risk of re-injury. However, over the years there have been major advancements in ACL rehabilitation and it is now much more plausible to return to competition after an ACL injury and compete at a high level.

Prehab

One aspect of ACL rehabilitation that often gets overlooked is the important time following the injury prior to surgery. As more people are realizing the significance of getting a recovery program off to a good start, the practice of prehabilitation is being implemented more frequently.

Typically the aim of prehab is to reduce swelling and stabilize the knee prior to surgery. This can be achieved through cold therapy and wearing a knee support to compress and stabilize the knee. Some mobility exercises can be performed at this stage if you experience no pain while doing them.

Post-Surgery

After successful reconstructive surgery, the rehabilitation process begins. This process can be broken down into a timeline with various phases. It is important that you stick to this timeline and do not rush things and risk re-injury.

The first two weeks immediately following surgery should be spent focusing on reducing swelling and controlling swelling. Similar to the processes of prehab, icing and compression should be applied here and the use of crutches combined with rest is commonly advised. At this time you can begin with static strengthening exercises such as lying down quadriceps and hamstring contractions.

After these two weeks, you should being a second phase of recovery. Mobility and strengthening exercises should continue and you can start to introduce exercises like shallow lunges and half squats. You can also start implementing adduction and abduction exercises for hip flexor strengthening as well as begin proprioception and balancing exercises.

At about the six week mark you can begin another phase of the rehabilitation. At this stage you can advance to full lunges and squats. You can now start to add weight for increased resistance and begin straight line jogging exercises.

Approximately twelve weeks after surgery you can begin to mix in training activities specific to your sport. The key here is to gradually increase speed and intensity of drills. Along with sport-specific drills, you should also focus on exercises that strengthen hip abductors and external rotators such as monster walks and single leg glute bridges.

Return to Competition

When and only when, your surgeon gives you permission to return to competition will you be able to start competing again. If you follow the processes outlined here you will give yourself the best chance to return to competition physically capable of competing at a high level. However, there is also a mental aspect that many athletes overlook.

Even if your body is ready physically, you may not be mentally prepared to trust your knee in live competition. Again, it is important to be patient and avoid returning until you are fully ready. Use the exercises mentioned above at the end of your recovery program to test yourself a bit and build confidence in your repaired knee. Once you return to competition, wearing a trusted ACL knee brace can give you extra support both physically and mentally.

The long road to recovery after an ACL injury can seem overwhelming at times. Dedication and discipline are required to rehabilitate yourself successfully. However, if you put in the work to reach a level where you are properly prepared physically and mentally to return, you can begin competing at a high level again.

Dave Chalmers is an athletic trainer who currently writes on behalf of DME Direct on topics related to sports medicine and physical therapy. When he’s not writing, you will most likely find Dave at the Staples Center cheering on his beloved Lakers.